In July 2019, three astrophysicists published the article Embedding Climate Change Engagement in Astronomy Education and Research (“Incorporating involvement with climate change in education and research in astronomy”), echoing concerns from the scientific community about the impact of climate change in their field of research. And they have already shown themselves to be extensive.
Three studies, based on the special session Astronomy for Future the European Astronomical Society’s 2020 virtual conference, published almost simultaneously in the magazine Naturand, show how astronomy and astrophysics are being affected by the climate crisis and, at the same time, contributing to its worsening.
Fostering the crisis
In two of the three articles published in the Naturand, the researchers detailed their own contribution to the increase of the climate crisis. At the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), it was discovered that only in 2018 did the institute’s researchers throw 18 tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, just in research activities (almost twice the average emissions per person in Germany).
“We are responsible for the emission of pollutants, even if the reduction is not a matter of personal choice. Therefore, we need to analyze where they originate from and then find out how to act so that they are reduced,” he said in a statement. astronomer Knud Jahnke, co-author of the study.
In studies in which the scientific community makes its mea culpThe, there is a list of recommendations. One of the most obvious is to exchange face-to-face conferences for online meetings (which is already happening, due to the pandemic caused by the new coronavirus), since the institute’s biggest carbon footprint is that left by its researchers’ transatlantic flights for conferences or visits to observatories in the Americas.
Mistral, a German supercomputer that needs continuous cooling, runs complex experiments with numerical models of the climate system.Source: DKRZ / MPIA / Disclosure
Another idea is to install the supercomputers in places like Iceland – a country with low temperatures (which reduces the need for cooling) and an abundance of renewable energy.
Affected by the crisis
In addition to self-criticism, the community of astronomers also points out how changes in climate are negatively affecting the quality of observations, in an inversely proportional relationship – examples abound. One of the articles speaks specifically of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (or ESO), the most advanced visible light astronomical observatory in the world.
Even though Atacama is one of the driest areas on the planet, the low humidity already indicates that it should not remain that way for a long time because of changes in El Niño (a phenomenon that significantly modifies the heat distribution on the surface of the Pacific Ocean water, leading to changes in climate).
The VLT’s cooling system is no longer able to maintain the dome temperature below 16 ° C at night.Source: ESO / Yuri Beletsky
In addition, the average temperature of the place is increasing – 1.5 ° C in the last 40 years. The VLT is cooled during the day to protect it from degradation, but it is at night that the biggest problem arises. When the thermometer records more than 16 ° C at sunset, the moment the dome is opened, the system is no longer able to achieve the ideal cooling. The result: unclear observations.
“As astronomers and with a unique perspective on the universe, it is our responsibility to disclose the disastrous consequences of man-made climate change on our planet and in our society,” said MPIA researcher Faustine Cantalloube, lead author of one of the new studies.