Jakarta, IDN Times – A vaccine to ward off diseases caused by a new type of corona virus, COVID-19, is a hope for every country exposed to this deadly disease. COVID-19 still occurs in almost all countries in the world. Some countries even reportedly began to enter the second wave of pandemics.
The Indonesian government through PT Bio Farma also plans to develop the COVID-19 vaccine. Bio Farma, as the parent holding The state-owned enterprise (BUMN) in the pharmaceutical sector, will partner with China to develop the manufacturing of the corona virus vaccine in the country.
Bio Farma President Director Honesti Basyir said that his office was still communicating with the vaccine agency in China named Sinovac. At present, China already has a vaccine that is in the second phase of clinical trials.
“We are also coordinating with them again, what if the next clinical trial vaccine and also for the mass fabrication process can later be done at Bio Farma,” he said in an RDP with the DPR’s Commission VI virtually, Tuesday (4/21).
In addition, Bio Farma also plans to collaborate with The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI). To date, the agency is reviewing proposals that have been sent by Bio Farma to CEPI.
Doctoral candidate for Genetic Engineering and Oxford University vaccine researcher Muhammad Hanafi revealed that there are currently 95 to 100 vaccines for COVID-19 developed by companies and universities around the world. However, of that number only 33.4 percent or about five or six vaccines were successfully entered clinical trial phase or trials in humans.
“Most of it is still being developed in the lab not in human testing. The one that has been tested goes into clinical trial or clinical trials and have been tested on humans are vaccines developed at Oxford, “Hanifi said in the Asik Chat program by IDN Times, Saturday (9/5).
Following IDN Times report step by step the development of making the COVID-19 vaccine in various countries that tried it.
28 June: Brazil buys Oxford University and AstraZeneca vaccine project materials
The Brazilian government announced an agreement with Oxford University and pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca to produce the Corona virus vaccine. Brazilian Ministry of Health authorities said they would pay $ 127 million for vaccine materials.
The material is estimated to be used to produce 30.4 million doses. The production will be divided into two batches in December and January. This will be produced by local vaccine maker Fiocruz.
That way, they will be able to immediately start inoculation efforts if the vaccine is certified safe and effective. They said the deal was actually for 100 million vaccines to be used in the country of about 210 million people.
27 June: Thailand will produce its own vaccine. Research is already in the test stage in monkeys
Thailand decided to produce its own COVID-19 vaccine candidate. The vaccine candidate research is still in the animal testing stage. Human trials are expected to be carried out in early October.
Vaccine candidate tests on a number of monkeys are being carried out. In the first dose, the results show the emergence of neutralizing antibodies which means the corona virus can be inhibited so it does not enter or damage body cells.
The second dose has been injected this week and the results will come out in the next two weeks.
If a vaccine candidate reaches a clinical test, this will be one of the few that can be made by developing countries. Once this happens, they plan to produce about 10,000 vaccine candidate doses in San Diego (United States) and Vancouver (Canada), then send it to Thailand for testing on humans.
There are three stages to human trials, and if all is successful, the vaccine will be produced in Thailand. He also mentioned that there is a possibility that there will be distribution to several neighboring countries or those with middle to lower economic levels.
June 24: Entering the human testing phase, three Chinese pharmaceutical companies are partnered with other countries
Pharmaceutical companies from China China National Biotec Group (CNBG) joined the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to develop vaccines and announced they were ready to enter stage three, namely testing on humans (human trial). They are optimistic that they will be able to produce the COVID-19 vaccine in 2021.
On Wednesday (24/6), the collaboration was conducted between G42 – an artificial intelligence and cloud computing company based in the UAE and Sinopharm Group, a pharmaceutical from China affiliated with CNBG.
Nationally, China actually leads the vaccine discovery with candidates who are ready to enter the stage human trial. But Chinese pharmaceutical companies are forced to “leave their country” and join projects in other countries. The reason is because the cases of transmission in China are already running low.
Before the CNBG was collaborated with the UAE, the Sinovac vaccine project from CanSino Biologics which was partnered with Brazil had already entered the final stage of this trial. The Chinese pharmaceutical company is collaborating with Instituto Butantan, a biomedical research center in São Paulo, Brazil on June 11.
June 23: Notes on 3 vaccines that are at the forefront of development
Based on WHO records, there are more than 130 independent vaccine development teams in the fight against this pandemic. The leading candidates include the AZD1222 vaccine produced by Oxford-Astrazeneca and mRNA from Moderna Inc. Both are based in the United States. AZD1222 from Oxford is one of the earliest developed vaccines to undergo clinical trials.
Meanwhile, China, succeeded with Sinovac from CanSino Biologics in collaboration with Brazil. China also boosted production of at least five vaccines, but Sinovac showed the safest and most promising results. Experts there are ready to suggest that this vaccine be used.
Both the US and Chinese vaccines, are ready to continue the next phase of the prototype vaccine trial, starting in July.
June 17: Receptor binding site the virus in Indonesia is not unique, any country vaccine can be efficacious
Vaccine seedlings from any country in the world can be used or efficacious to ward off SARS-CoV-2 or the virus that causes COVID-19 in Indonesia. Corona virus that spreads in Indonesia is no more virulent than those in other places, so it does not make antibodies or vaccines lose their usefulness.
The corona virus in Indonesia does have a slight difference from the initial SARS-CoV-2 virus originating from Wuhan, China. But the virus in Indonesia is not unique, has no difference receptor binding site.
“If the corona virus in Indonesia experiences a change in binding site“Vaccines found from abroad could lose their properties if used in Indonesia,” said virologist from Udayana University Professor Ngurah Mahardika, at a press conference at Graha BNPB Jakarta, Thursday (6/17).
June 13: 4 countries poured Rp12 T to buy 300 million doses of vaccine named AZD1222
Four European Union countries namely Italy, Germany, the Netherlands and France agreed to pay an initial deposit of Rp. 12 trillion to buy 300 million doses of prospective COVID-19 vaccines.
The prospective vaccine was named AZD1222 and was developed by scientists at Oxford University. While mass production is carried out by biofarma company AstraZeneca, which releases this information on its official website.
On Saturday (13/6), AstraZeneca had announced an agreement with four countries to supply up to 400 million doses of the COVID-19 vaccine, if it had been given the green light from the government. Delivery of the plan began in late 2020. To fulfill the plan, the company built a number supply chain around the world.
12 June: Indonesia cooperates with Norway and China to find vaccines
The Foreign Minister, Retno Marsudi said that Indonesia was collaborating with several countries in the process of procuring COVID-19 vaccines. Two of them are Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), based in Norway, and Sinopec, based in China.
“We are cooperating with the parties we have contacted with, among others, CEPI, but precisely in Norway, this CEPI is a vaccine that is genetically modified,” he said in a virtual discussion ‘World Geopolitical Trends in the Middle of COVID-19’, Friday (12/6).
May 29: Kalbe Farma and South Korea’s Genexine enter the clinical trial phase of vaccines to humans
PT Kalbe Farma Tbk signed a memorandum of understanding with Genexine, Inc., a biology drug company from South Korea, to develop a new corona virus vaccine or COVID-19. The clinical trial of the COVID-19 vaccine is planned to be carried out in June 2020.
“Kalbe hopes that through the research and development of the COVID-19 vaccine it can quickly get results, so that the availability of vaccines in Indonesia can be guaranteed,” he said.
According to him, vaccine research has been carried out on primates, and has been shown to produce antibodies capable of neutralizing the corona virus, so that the next stage will be tested on humans.
Kalbe and Genexine agreed to conduct GX-19 clinical trials in Indonesia, namely the development of DNA vaccines against the corona virus by a consortium with Genexine, Binex, the International Vaccine Institute (IVI), GenNBio, the Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology (KAIST), and Pohang University of Science & Technology (POSTECH).
21 May: SOE Minister predicts that domestic-made vaccines will be completed in 2021
SOE Minister Erick Thohir predicts the domestic-made corona virus or COVID-19 vaccine will be released in 2021. The vaccine is made by a state-owned pharmaceutical company, Bio Farma.
Previously, President Director of Bio Farma Honesti Basyir, with the development of biopharmacetic technology, vaccine manufacturing could be done in a shorter time than the standard vaccine manufacturing time in general.
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“For example, my friends have heard that several research institutes have conducted clinical trials in Phase 1 and want Phase 2 of the vaccine (COVID-19) to be tested on humans. This means that it is very fast, it was 10 to 15 years, this is less 1 years can be met and can be tested on humans, “he explained.
May 16: The Eijkman Institute is looking for donors for vaccine clinical trials
Deputy Head of Fundamental Research at the Eijkman Institute’s Molecular Biology Institute (LBM), Herawati Sudoyo, said that she would immediately conduct a clinical trial phase for vaccine manufacturing.
At present, Eijkman is still looking for donors who are needed in these clinical trials. These donors for the first time generally come from experimental animals. But after going through several processes, then will be tested on humans.
Prof. Amin from the Eijkman Institute informed that at least some of the criteria were sought for this trial. Those who can become donors are male and female, healthy, free of COVID-19 and transfusion infections, and have quite high antibodies.
May 13: Serum Institute in India is the first to plan to market the COVID-19 vaccine for Rp. 197 thousand
A private company engaged in manufacturing inexpensive medicines in India, the Serum Institute, plans to set a prospective COVID-19 vaccine price of Rp. 197 thousand per dose. The manufacturer, located in the Pune region, announced the beginning of a trial of a candidate vaccine to the human body on April 23.
It was one of the earliest trials in the world. In addition to the Serum Institute, the Indian Medical Research Council (ICMR) which is a state institution also participated in the COVID-19 vaccine hunt by cooperating with Bharat Biotech located in Hyderabad.
May 12: Pfizer, the US pharmaceutical giant teamed up with German pharmacy BioNTech SE for a human vaccine trial, expected in October
Pfizer, a giant drug producer in the United States that has stated the readiness of testing experimental vaccines into the human body last May, is now collaborating with the German pharmaceutical company BioNTech SE. Based on tracking information available on the bioworld.com website, BioNTech was granted a test permit from the German government on April 23.
Both are also preparing trials in the United States. To speed up this process, Pfizer has shifted the production of other medicines to external contractors, because it wants to focus on prospective COVID-19 vaccines.
Launch CNBC, if successful, the New York-based company hopes to get the green light from the US authorities at least in October, to conduct mass production. Pfizer claims to be able to distribute up to 20 million doses by the end of 2020, and possibly hundreds of millions a year later.
Also Read: 100 Corona Virus Vaccines Developed, 6 Already Entered in Human Trials
30 April: Jenner Institute of Oxford University collaborates with AstraZeneca to develop a vaccine
Jenner Institute of Oxford University announced it would work with AstraZeneca UK to make a prototype of a coronavirus vaccine that could be produced this fall (September).
AstraZeneca Chief Executive Pascal Soriot said they would speed up the globalization of the vaccine to combat this virus. But there is no exact date when the production of the vaccine named “ChAdOx1 nCoV-19” begins.
April 24: China declares a vaccine for emergencies will be ready this September
China, which has developed the COVID-19 vaccine since Jantuati, claims the vaccine will be ready for use in September this year for emergencies. Whereas public production will be carried out early next year.
Reporting from South China Morning Post (SCMP), Head of the China Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Gao Fu noted that this depends on the progress of the trial development.
“The vaccine is currently still in phase two or phase three clinical trials, while it can be used for some special groups of people such as health workers. We might have a vaccine for a healthy population early next year,” Gao Fu told the China Global Television Network on Monday (27) / 4).
Based on data from the World Healt Organization (WHO) China there are a number of COVID-19 vaccine development projects carried out by several institutions.
- CanSino Biological Inc./Beijing Institute of Biotechnology (second phase test)
- Beijing Institute of Biological Products / Wuhan Institute of Biological Products (first phase test) Sinavac is also currently undergoing a first phase trial.
- Sinovac (first phase test)
Also Read: Use of COVID-19 Surviving Blood Plasma, Vaccine Researchers: Be Careful
April 7: Inovio Pharmaceuticals, the second company in the United States, has been testing vaccines
The second company in the United States (US), Inovio Pharmaceuticals, is ready to begin conducting a new corona virus vaccine safety test. As reported by ABC News, on Monday (6/4) yesterday Inovio said it already had permission from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
According to them, the FDA has received their company Investigational New Drug (IND) submission for INO-4800, which is a candidate for a vaccine created to prevent COVID-19 infection. Inovio Pharmaceuticals said that the vaccine was made using parts of the viral genetic code that were packaged in a piece of synthetic DNA.
Also Read: US Begins Trial of COVID-19 Prime Vaccine to Humans
27 March: Australia tests TB vaccine to ward off COVID-19
Australian researchers announced on Friday (3/27), they moved quickly to find a vaccine to ward off COVID-19. Currently, researchers are testing a vaccine that has been used for decades to prevent tuberculosis (TB), as a COVID-19 antidote vaccine.
The plan is for the vaccine for TB or commonly called the BCG vaccine to be tested on 4,000 health workers in hospitals throughout Australia. Researchers at the Murdoch Children’s Research Institute in Melbourne, Australia, will see whether the BCG vaccine can reduce the symptoms of COVID-19.
March 16: The United States creates a vaccine called mRNA-1273
The United States government began conducting a first trial of the COVID-19 disease vaccine. News TV station The BBCOn Tuesday (3/17), vaccine trials were conducted on four patients at the Kaiser Permanente research facility in Seattle, Washington, United States.
Moderna Inc., a biotechnology company from Cambridge and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) collaborates to support the manufacture of a vaccine called mRNA-1273. This vaccine contains a dangerous genetic code – copied from a virus that has caused the deaths of more than 7,000 people.
Previously, the inaugural vaccine trial was funded by the National Institute of Health. This organization has conducted a vaccine trial on animals that aims to check whether the vaccine can trigger endurance to animals.
Also Read: Corona Vaccine Found! The drug COVID-19 is immediately produced
4 February: SOE Minister Erick Thohir asks Bio Farma for research related to the corona virus vaccine
Long before the government officially announced the COVID-19 case in the country, SOE Minister Erick Thohir encouraged the BUMN BUMN holding to conduct research to find the corona virus vaccine.
“We also encourage Bio Farma and friends to look for research for (corona) vaccines as well. So how do you know we have plants that can be used against (corona),” said Special Staff of the Ministry of SOEs, Arya Sinulingga, Tuesday (4/2) .
Responding to this, PT Bio Farma has not been able to make a corona antivirus vaccine in the near future. Mains of holding The pharmacy said they were looking for research institutions for the vaccine manufacturing process.
“If we talk about making a normal vaccine outside the incident for quite a while, it takes 15 years (making it) from zero. So we have to be together with research institutions so that we are not from zero,” said Director of PT Bio Farma, Honesti Basyir in Jakarta , Wednesday (5/2).
January 26: China begins to develop the COVID-19 vaccine manufacturing project
China has begun an effort to find a vaccine that can protect humans from COVID-19 which is potentially deadly. Reporting from the New York Post, Major General Chen Wei who led the development of the vaccine said that the vaccine is ready to be produced on a large scale.
Chen Wei from the Chinese Military Medical Academy explained that China would recruit 108 healthy people to participate in the vaccine trial. The trial will be carried out step by step and will last until 31 December. This trial will involve CanSino Biologics, a biotechnology company in Hong Kong.
Also Read: How Far Is The Progress of Vaccine Development for the COVID-19 Plague?