Earth is a planet where we and other biological organisms can live well. The earth that has evolved many times has made this planet more feasible as a home for all life in it.
However, Earth is not a planet without a system. Earth is also not a planet that does not have a supporting structure in it. In fact, the Earth has several layers and structures that can sustain life until now.
These are some of the structures of parts of the Earth that have supported the life of the planet. Anything? C’mon, pay attention!
Simply put, the atmosphere can be interpreted as a layer of gas and water vapor that protects the Earth from various kinds of disturbances that come from outside the Earth. The thickness of the atmosphere can reach hundreds to thousands of kilometers.
If you are on the surface of the Earth, then you will not be able to see the atmosphere due to the strong influence of sunlight. However, the atmosphere can be seen clearly if you are in outer space.
The layer of gas will be seen wrapping the Earth like a gas mantle. And we owe a lot to the existence of the atmosphere because it’s very vital for biological survival.
Science page Space notes that Earth is the only planet in our Solar System that has a perfect atmosphere. Earth’s atmosphere will help warm the Earth during the day and will reduce the temperature of the Earth at night.
The five layers of the Earth’s atmosphere are the troposphere; stratosphere; mesosphere; thermosphere; and ionosphere. The fifth layer is tasked with protecting the Earth from all kinds of disturbances, ranging from space rocks to the sun’s heat that can be deadly.
While gases in the atmosphere are nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, helium, methane, hydrogen, and a small number of other gases. If the atmosphere disappears from Earth, life on Earth will also be destroyed.
2. Lithosphere or Earth’s crust
As written in Science Daily, an important part of the Earth is the lithosphere or the crust of the Earth. This layer is the outermost layer of a planet, including Earth. Yes, all living organisms that are currently running are in this layer.
More or less, you can see the picture above as an illustration of what the lithosphere is. Basically, the part that is visible to our eyes – as long as it lies on the surface and bottom of the sea – then it is the crust of the Earth.
The crust consists of various kinds of igneous rock, sediment, minerals, and so forth. Even though the Earth’s crust is where we stand, in fact the Earth’s crust only occupies less than 1 percent of the total volume of the Earth.
The skin or crust of the Earth is also divided into two major parts, namely the continental crust and oceanic crust. Continental crust usually has a thickness of 30 to 50 kilometers, while oceanic crust has a thickness of 5 to 10 kilometers.
The temperature on the Earth’s crust will also increase according to its depth. The deeper the Earth’s crust, the higher the temperature. In the deepest part of the Earth’s crust, which borders the Earth’s mantle, the temperature can reach 900 degrees Celsius.
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3. Earth’s Coat
The deeper structure of the Earth’s crust is a mantle. National Geographic on its website note that the Earth’s mantle is the densest part of the Earth and lies between the Earth’s crust and the Earth’s outer core.
The Earth’s mantle is also the majority part of the Earth, reaching 84 percent of Earth’s total volume. The thickness of the Earth’s mantle can reach 2,900 kilometers. Earth’s mantle was formed 4.5 billion years ago through the process of separation between Earth’s rocks and other minerals.
Well, initially the Earth’s coat was liquid. Over a span of millions of years, the Earth’s mantle freezes and hardens into rocks called silicate rocks. In addition, parts of the Earth’s mantle also consist of several minerals, such as iron, aluminum, calcium, sodium, and potassium.
The Earth’s mantle functions as a temperature balance keeper in the Earth’s crust. Understandably, its existence that encloses the Earth’s core becomes a barrier between the Earth’s core and the Earth’s crust, so the temperature is fairly hot, which is in the range of 3,000 degrees Celsius.
Some activity on the Earth’s mantle can result in a physical boost to the tectonic plate. That is why, the tectonic plates can cause earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, and even the formation of new volcanoes.
4. Earth’s outer core
The zone between the Earth’s mantle and the core of the Earth is the outer core of the Earth. As written on the science page Phys, the Earth’s outer core is hot liquid about 2,300 kilometers thick.
Temperatures on this part of the Earth reach 4,500 to 5,700 degrees Celsius, much hotter when compared to the Earth’s mantle. The function of the outer core of the Earth is to help the stability of the Earth’s magnetic field.
Because this liquid region is in the zone between the mantle and the core of the Earth, this region can spin rapidly and produce energy like a dynamo. That is why, the Earth’s magnetic field in the zone will be much stronger when compared to the size of the magnetic field from the surface of the Earth.
5. The deepest core of the Earth
The hottest part of the Earth is of course at its core or the so-called core of the Earth. The temperature at the core of the Earth is estimated to be the same as the surface temperature of the Sun, which is 5,700 to 6,000 degrees Celsius.
Sciencing noted that the Earth’s core is mostly solid and the majority consists of iron, although some parts may be softer than others. The elements in the Earth’s core are nickel, silicon, and metals similar to iron minerals.
Until now, research and geological studies on the Earth’s core are still being conducted. In fact, researching the Earth’s core is far more difficult than researching space. The Earth’s core also plays a major role in the Earth’s revolution, namely the movement of the Earth around the Sun.
Those are some important structures and parts of Earth, the planet where we live comfortably. It is inconceivable if one of these parts is damaged, surely it will also affect life on Earth.
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